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A Tutorial For Adding Knowledge to Your Robot

Copyright © by Doubly Aimless ( - May, 2004 - Revision 7.
Additional editing by Seiji Umatani (


This is a brief tutorial describing how you can create and add knowledge to your robot. A successful robot will give responses that appear to be coming from a human. Your goal as the botmaster is very simple:

"Build content that induces the visitor to carry on conversations with your robot for as long as possible!"

You do this by creating a variety of potential answers to various questions, or re-directing a conversation to new topics that the client finds interesting - always with the goal of continuing the interactions as long as possible.

Examples of such robots can be found at the links below:

Pandorabots allows you to extend the knowledge of your robot via a programming language called AIML. The goal of this tutorial is to teach you the minimum of AIML necessary to make your robot "smarter" and better able to carry on a realistic conversation.

This Tutorial is a draft - and unfortunately has errors and omissions. Better versions will be forthcoming. Some of you will argue that it would have been better to postpone publication - yet the cry for some kind of documentation was just too much. Please accept my apologies for this draft's roughness. Please mail comments and problems to the attention of Dr. Doubly Aimless at

More details on the information in this tutorial can be found in the references listed at the end. In particular, the latest version of the AIML specification contains many of the details omitted in this document.

The robots discussed in this document, and on, are based on AIML and spring entirely from the work of Dr. Richard Wallace and the A.L.I.C.E. and AIML free software community based at

Copyright © 2002 - 2004 Doubly Aimless

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